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Table 1 Characteristics of analytic sample over time, China Health and Nutrition Survey 1991–2009

From: Parent–child associations for changes in diet, screen time, and physical activity across two decades in modernizing China: China Health and Nutrition Survey 1991–2009

  1991 2000 2009
No. of parent–child pairs 2257 2638 772
Child’s age, y (mean ± SD)a 12.6 ± 3.2 13.0 ± 2.9 14.2 ± 2.3
Mother’s age, y (mean ± SD)a 38.5 ± 5.4 39.1 ± 5.5 40.3 ± 4.4
Father’s age, y (mean ± SD)a 40.4 ± 6.0 40.5 ± 5.8 41.8 ± 5.0
Child’s gender, % male 51.4 52.7 53.2
Highest parental education, %a
 None/primary school 18.8 8.2 9.2
 Middle school 28.4 18.5 22.8
 High school 49.1 67.0 58.9
 College, technical or higher 3.8 5.8 9.1
Number of generation, % three-generationa, b 26.1 33.1 57.9
Number of children, % one childa 47.2 45.9 72.4
Annual household income, 1000 yuan (mean ± SD)a, c 11.4 ± 8.2 19.2 ± 19.8 40.0 ± 40.0
Urbanicity (mean ± SD)a, d 42.4 ± 15.2 54.2 ± 16.9 61.6 ± 18.4
  1. aStatistically different across years at the p < 0.01 level using one-way ANOVA (continuous variables) or chi-squared test (categorical variables)
  2. bThree-generation: children, parents and grandparents (versus two-generation: children and parents)
  3. cTotal household income inflated to 2011
  4. dUrbanicity defined by a multicomponent urbanicity scale ranging from 0–120 [31]