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Table 1 Results of repeated measures for changes in perception of the neighbourhood environment stratified by "achievers" (n = 44) and "non-achievers" (n = 38) (Total n = 82)

From: The perception of the neighborhood environment changes after participation in a pedometer based community intervention

Themes of neighbour-hood   Baseline Follow-up Time effect Time × achiever Time × baseline Time × achiever × baseline
   Mean (SD) Mean (SD) F (p) F (p) F (p) F (p)
Density score Achievers 103.0 (45.9) 97.8 (29.7)     
  Non-achievers 98.7 (37.6) 100.9 (37.5)     
  Total 110.0 (42.1) 99.2 (33.4) 0.15 (ns) 0.87 (ns) 0.09 (ns) 0.15 (ns)
Distance score Achievers 22.8 (5.0) 22.5 (4.4)     
  Non-achievers 21.8 (4.2) 19.6 (3.9)     
  Total 22.3 (4.7) 21.1 (4.4) 7.20 (**) 3.39 (ns) 1.65 (ns) 0.09 (ns)
Availability of sidewalks Achievers 4.4 (1.5) 4.8 (1.6)     
  Non-achievers 4.1 (1.4) 4.1 (1.4)     
  Total 4.3 (1.5) 4.5 (1.6) 1.71 (ns) 1.65 (ns) 0.09 (ns) 0.01 (ns)
Availability of bike lanes Achievers 2.1 (0.5) 2.4 (0.9)     
  Non-achievers 2.2 (0.6) 2.5 (0.8)     
  Total 2.2 (0.6) 2.4 (0.8) 7.80 (**) 0.00 (ns) 5.68 (*)a 0.33 (ns)
Availability of infrastructure Achievers 6.5 (1.6) 7.2 (1.9)     
  Non-achievers 6.3 (1.7) 6.6 (1.9)     
  Total 6.5 (1.7) 6.9 (1.9) 6.12 (*) 0.89 (ns) 2.08 (ns) 0.13 (ns)
Maintenance of infrastructure Achievers 5.8 (1.3) 6.5 (1.8)     
  Non-achievers 6.3 (1.7) 7.3 (2.2)     
  Total 6.0 (1.5) 6.9 (2.0) 20.96(***) 0.45 (ns) 0.60 (ns) 7.56 (**)b
Total safety Achievers 21.2 (2.5) 21.4 (2.5)     
  Non-achievers 21.7 (2.2) 21.2 (2.9)     
  Total 21.5 (2.3) 21.3 (2.7) 0.32 (ns) 1.63 (ns) 2.88 (ns) 1.00 (ns)
Safety crime Achievers 11.1 (1.1) 10.9 (1.2)     
  Non-achievers 11.1 (1.1) 10.9 (1.3)     
  Total 11.1 (1.1) 10.9 (1.2) 1.19 (ns) 0.01 (ns) 1.11 (ns) 2.83 (ns)
Safety traffic Achievers 10.1 (1.9) 10.5 (1.7)     
  Non-achievers 10.7 (1.3) 10.3 (2.1)     
  Total 10.4 (1.6) 10.4 (1.9) 0.00 (ns) 4.05 (*) 3.12 (ns) 0.05 (ns)
Pleasure Achievers 12.8 (1.7) 13.1 (1.7)     
  Non-achievers 13.9 (1.7) 13.9 (3.5)     
  Total 13.3 (1.8) 13.4 (2.7) 0.08 (ns) 0.10 (ns) 2.66 (ns) 0.57 (ns)
Aesthetics Achievers 9.7 (1.4) 9.9 (1.5)     
  Non-achievers 10.5 (1.3) 10.8 (3.4)     
  Total 10.1 (1.4) 10.3 (2.6) 0.75 (ns) 0.07 (ns) 2.72 (ns) 0.55 (ns)
Network Achievers 7.7 (1.9) 7.9 (1.9)     
  Non-achievers 8.1 (2.0) 8.7 (2.1)     
  Total 7.9 (2.0) 8.2 (2.0) 2.93 (ns) 0.49 (ns) 5.44 (*)c 1.25 (ns)
Connectivity Achievers 6.2 (1.8) 6.2 (1.7)     
  Non-achievers 6.6 (1.8) 6.8 (1.7)     
  Total 6.4 (1.8) 6.5 (1.7) 0.45 (ns) 0.40 (ns) 3.78 (ns) 1.06 (ns)
Home Achievers 3.9 (1.5) 3.5 (1.1)     
  Non-achievers 4.0 (1.1) 3.8 (1.1)     
  Total 3.9 (1.3) 3.6 (1.1) 3.68 (ns) 0.97 (ns) 2.31 (ns) 1.91 (ns)
Work/Study Achievers 4.2 (2.8) 3.7 (1.7)     
  Non-achievers 4.4 (3.1) 3.7 (1.6)     
  Total 4.3 (2.9) 3.7 (1.6) 1.83 (ns) 0.20 (ns) 0.33 (ns) 2.74 (ns)
  1. *p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01; ***p ≤ 0.001; ns = not significant (p ≥ 0.05)
  2. a The perceptions concerning the availability of bike lanes increased in participants with high baseline PA (p < 0.001) whereas the perceptions of the participants with low baseline PA didn't change
  3. b Maintenance of infrastructure was perceived more positively after the intervention by participants with low baseline PA, but only in the achievers" (p < 0.05); while for participants with high baseline PA, only the "non-achievers" increased their perception (p < 0.001) after the intervention
  4. c The perception of the network increased in participants with low baseline PA (p < 0.05) whereas the perception of the participants with high baseline PA didn't change