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Table 1 Characteristics of participants aged 65 or older with depressive symptoms in Taiwan

From: Relationships of leisure-time and non-leisure-time physical activity with depressive symptoms: a population-based study of Taiwanese older adults

Variables n Depressive Symptoms(%) χ2 test
Socio-demographic    
Sex    p < 0.001
Female 1225 24.5  
Male 1236 16.7  
Age    p = 0.768a
85+ 105 21.0  
75-84 821 20.1  
65-74 1535 20.8  
Education level    p < 0.001
Illiterate 828 28.7  
Literate but no formal schooling 128 16.4  
Primary school 986 18.5  
Secondary school 352 14.2  
College+ 166 9.0  
Marital status    p < 0.001
Widowed 740 25.3  
Separated/divorced 147 29.3  
Never married 68 25.0  
Married/cohabiting 1502 17.2  
Working status    p < 0.001
Unable to work 70 30.0  
Retired 1531 21.4  
Housekeeper 467 22.9  
Currently working 392 13.3  
Monthly income (NT dollar)    p < 0.001a
0 310 20.0  
1-9999 1406 25.0  
10000-19999 381 16.0  
20000+ 346 7.8  
Living status    p < 0.001
Alone 250 31.2  
With family/others 2211 19.4  
Lifestyle behaviors    
Leisure-time physical activity    p < 0.001a
0 (kcal/wk) 1046 29.0  
1-999 743 18.6  
1000-1999 366 11.5  
2000+ 304 7.9  
Non Leisure-time physical activity    p < 0.001a
0 (kcal/wk) 1973 22.3  
1-999 186 14.5  
1000-1999 68 11.8  
2000+ 231 14.3  
Overall physical activity    p < 0.001a
0 (kcal/wk) 792 32.4  
1-999 739 20.0  
1000-1999 384 11.5  
2000+ 546 10.6  
Drinking    p < 0.001
Yes 503 13.9  
No 1958 22.3  
Smoking    p = 0.124
Current smoker 438 20.4  
Quit 247 15.8  
Never smoked 1775 21.4  
Health Status    
Body mass index    p < 0.001
Underweight < 18.5 155 33.5  
Obese 27+ 474 20.5  
Overweight 24-26.99 677 17.9  
Normal 18.5-23.99 1120 20.4  
Number of chronic diseases    p < 0.001
3+ 578 31.1  
2 537 19.9  
1 690 18.4  
0 656 14.2  
Activities of daily living    p < 0.001
Some or great difficulties 234 47.9  
No difficulties at all 2227 17.7  
  1. a: test for linear trend
  2. Case numbers do not always total 2727 due to missing values for some variables.