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Table 2 Pedometer -based physical activity intervention studies with older adults

From: How many steps/day are enough? For older adults and special populations

Reference Sample Intervention duration; study duration and design Instrument Intervention Group
Baseline Steps/day
Intervention Group
Immediately Post-Intervention Steps/day
Delta
Steps/day
Cohen's D
Conn [89]
2003
USA
65-96 years; community-dwelling;
190 participants
3-month intervention; 3-month randomized controlled trial Yamax Digi-Walker 2,773 ± 1,780 2,253 ± 1,394 -520 -0.33
Croteau [26]
2004
USA
68-95 years; living in assisted living; 15 participants 4-week intervention; 4-week quasi-experimental Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200 3,031 ± 2,754 2,419 ± 2,296 -612 -0.24
Jensen [90] 2004
USA
60-75 years; community -dwelling; 18 participants 3-month intervention; 3-month quasi-experimental Accusplit, San Jose, CA 4,027 ± 2,515 5,883 ± 3,214 1,856 0.65
Croteau [25] 2005
USA
60-90 year olds;
living in congregate housing or community-dwelling; 76 participants
4- month intervention; 4-month quasi-experimental Accusplit AX120, San Jose, California 4,041 ± 2,824 5,559 ± 3,866 1,518 0.45
Croteau [91]
2007
USA
55-94 years; community-dwelling; 147 participants 12-week intervention; 12-week quasi-experimental Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200 (Yamax Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) 4,963 6,200 1,237 N/A
Sarkisian [92]
2007
USA
≥ 65 years; community-dwelling; 46 participants 7-week intervention; 7-week quasi-experimental Digiwalker (Yamax DW-500, New Lifestyles, Inc., Kansas City, MO) 3,536 ± 2,280* 4,387 ± 2,770* 851 0.34
Wellman [93]
2007
USA
Mean 74.6 years; community-dwelling; 320 participants 12-week intervention; 12-week quasi-experimental NR 3,110 ± 2,448 4,183 ± 3,257 1,073 0.38
Rosenberg [24]
2008
USA
74-92 years; living in continuing care retirement community; 12 participants 2 week intervention; 3-week quasi- experimental Accusplit AH120M9, Pleasanton, CA 3,020 ± 1,858 4,246 ± 2,331 1,226 0.59
Culos-Reed [94]
2008
Canada
46-83 years; community-dwelling; 39 participants 8-week intervention; 8-week quasi-experimental NR 5,055 ± 1,374 5,969 ± 1,543 914 0.63
Fitzpatrick [95]
2008
USA
Mean 75 years;
attending senior centers;
418 participants
4-month intervention; 4-month quasi-experimental Accusplit, San Jose, CA 2,895 ± 2,170 3,743 ± 2,311 848 0.38
Opdenacker [27]
2008
Belgium
≥ 60 years; community-dwelling; 46 intervention participants 11-month intervention; 23-month randomized controlled trial Yamax Digiwalker SW-200, Yamax Corporation, Tokyo, Japan 7,390 ± 2,693** 7,465 ± 3,344** 75 0.02
Sugden [96]
2008
U.K.
70-86 years; community-dwelling;
54 participants
12-week intervention; 12-week randomized controlled trial Omron HJ-005 2,895 NR N/A N/A
Koizumi [97]
2009
Japan
60-78 years; community-dwelling; 34 intervention participants 12-week intervention; 12-week randomized controlled trial Kenz Lifecorder, Suzuken Company, Nagoya, Japan 7,811 ± 3,268 9,046 ± 2,620 1,235 0.42
  1. Steps/day presented as mean ± SD unless otherwise noted; *reported as steps/week in original article; divided by 7 days here; **SD calculated from reported SE
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