Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 4 Summary of associations between playground characteristics and physical activity in (pre)school children, according to included observational studies

From: The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children’s physical activity level: a systematic review

  Preschool Primary, secondary, mixed school Total
  Studies that investigated the playground characteristic Number of studies Studies that found significant positive or negative associations (n (%)) Summary code of association Studies that investigated the playground characteristic Number of studies Studies that found significant positive or negative associations (n (%)) Summary code of association Summary code of association
HARDWARE
Playground size Boldemann, 2006 [58] 2 2 (100) ++ Fairclough, 2012 [50] 5 1 (20) 0 ?
  Dowda, 2009 [45]     Nielsen, 2010 [55]     
      Nielsen, 2012 [59]     
      Ridgers, 2010 [30, 49]     
      Sallis, 2001 [44]     
Surface type Cardon, 2008 [57] 1 0 (0) 0 Willenberg, 2010 [51] 1 0 (0) 0 0
Surface with vegetation/green Boldemann, 2006 [58] 2 1 (50) ? Haug, 2008 [54] 2 0 (0) 0 0
  Cardon, 2008 [57]     Haug, 2010 [53]     
SOFTWARE
Coverage/shade   0 0 (0) 0 Colabianchi, 2011 [40, 46] 1 0 (0) 0 0
Play equipment (unspecified)   0 0 (0) 0 McKenzie, 2010 [48] 7 6 (86) ++ ++
      McKenzie, 2010[48]     
      Haug, 2008 [54]     
      Haug, 2010[53]     
      Haug, 2010 [53]     
      Sallis, 2001 [44]     
      Colabianchi, 2011 [40, 46]     
Lack of cleanliness   0 0 (0) 0 Colabianchi, 2011 [40, 46] 1 0 (0) 0 0
Safety   0 0 (0) 0 Colabianchi, 2011 [40, 46] 1 0 (0) 0 0
Quality   0 0 (0) 0 Colabianchi, 2011 [40, 46] 1 0 (0) 0 0
Balls Brown, 2009 [37, 47] 2 1 (50) ? Zask, 2001 [52] 1 1 (100) +++ +++
  Gubbels, 2012 [60]         
Climbing structures Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0   0 0 (0) 0 0
Floor play equipment Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0   0 0 (0) 0 0
Jumping equipment Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0   0 0 (0) 0 0
Portable equipment (unspecified) Dowda, 2009 [45] 2 1 (50) ? Willenberg, 2010 [51] 1 1 (100) ++ ++
  Cardon, 2008 [57]         
Push/pull toys Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0   0 0 (0) 0 0
Riding toys Gubbels, 2012 [60] 2 0 (0) 0   0 0 (0) 0 0
  Brown, 2009 [37, 47]         
Sand/water toys Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0   0 0 (0) 0 0
Slides Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 1 (100) - - -   0 0 (0) 0 - - -
Sociodramatic props Brown, 2009 [37;47] 1 0 (0) 0   0 0 (0) 0 0
Twirling equipment Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0   0 0 (0) 0 0
Balancing surfaces Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0   0 0 (0) 0 0
Benches and seating   0 0 (0) 0 Ridgers, 2010 [30, 49] 2 0 (0) 0 0
      Colabianchi, 2011 [40, 46]     
Climbing structures Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0 Haug, 2008 [54] 1 0 (0) 0 0
Fixed equipment (unspecified) Brown, 2009 [37, 47] 2 1 (50) ? Taylor, 2011 [56] 7 6 (86) +++ +++
Permanent play facilities/improvements Dowda, 2009 [45]     Willenberg, 2010 [51]     
      Nielsen, 2010 [55]     
      Nielsen, 2012 [59]     
      Ridgers, 2010 [30, 49]     
      Sallis, 2001 [44]     
      Colabianchi, 2011[40, 46]     
Hopscotch/skipping rope area   0 0 (0) 0 Haug, 2010 [53] 1 1 (100) +++ +++
Merry-go-round Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0   0 0 (0) 0 0
Obstacle course   0 0 (0) 0 Haug, 2008 [54] 2 1 (50) ? ?
      Haug, 2010 [53]     
Open field with no markings Brown, 2009 [37, 47] 1 1 (100) ++ Haug, 2008 [54] 2 1 (50) ? ++
      Sallis, 2001 [44]     
Room for cardio/weightlifting   0 0 (0) 0 Haug, 2008 [54] 2 0 (0) 0 0
Gym/sports hall      Sallis, 2001 [44]     
Sandbox Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 1 (100) - - -   0 0 (0) 0 - - -
See-saw Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0   0 0 (0) 0 0
Ski/skateboard/skating facilities   0 0 (0) 0 Haug, 2010 [53] 3 1 (33) 0 0
Sledding hill      Haug, 2008 [54]     
      Haug, 2010 [53]     
Slides Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0   0 0 (0) 0 0
Soccer fields Cardon, 2008 57] 1 0 (0) 0 Haug, 2010[53] 6 2 (33) 0 0
Areas with markings      Willenberg, 2010 [51]     
      Haug, 2008 [54]     
      Sallis, 2001 [44]     
      Haug, 2010 [53]     
      Ridgers, 2010 [30, 49]     
Structured track Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 1 (100) +++   0 0 (0) 0 +++
Swinging equipment Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 1 (100) - - -   0 0 (0) 0 - - -
Tunnels Gubbels, 2012 [60] 1 0 (0) 0   0 0 (0) 0 0
Trash cans   0 0 (0) 0 Colabianchi, 2011 [40, 46] 1 1 (100) - - - - - -
Water and swimming facilities   0 0 (0) 0 Haug, 2008 [54] 1 1 (100) - - - -
ORGWARE
Decreased playground density (m2/child) Cardon, 2008[57] 1 1 (100) ++ Ridgers, 2010 [30, 49] 1 1 (100) ++ ++
Increased recess duration Cardon, 2008 [57] 1 1 (100) ++ Ridgers, 2010 [30, 49] 1 0 (0) 0 ?
No organized activities   0 0 (0) 0 McKenzie, 2010[48] 1 1 (100) ++ ++
Supervision Cardon, 2008[57] 1 1 (100) - - McKenzie, 2010 [48] 6 2 (33) 0 ?
      McKenzie, 2010[48]     
      Willenberg, 2010 [51]     
      Sallis, 2001 [44]     
      Zask, 2001 [52]     
      Ridgers, 2010 [30, 49]     
  1. Studies with a + symbol indicate a significant positive association, studies with a - symbol indicate a significant negative association, and studies with a 0 symbol indicate no significant association; ♀/♂ in superscript indicates an association that only accounts for girls/boys. Summary codes: a 0 symbol as summary code indicates no association; a ? symbol as summary code indicates indeterminate/inconclusive association; a + symbol as summary code indicates a positive association and a – symbol as summary code indicates a negative association. The number of characters relate to the quality of the studies; one + or – for studies of poor quality (≤5.0 points), ++ or - for studies of moderate quality (5.5-8.0 points), and +++ or - - - for studies of high quality (≥8.5 points). Note: if ≥ 4 studies an additional + or – was also assigned [13].